Data Communications and Networking

Networking & Data Communication

Networking is the technology and architecture of the communicating NetworksArchitecture -> physical structure -> topology. Data communication is the exchange of data in the form of 0 and 1 between two or more devices with the help of transmission medium.Where 0,1 is traveling in the form of signal and medium is wire, wireless ,wave etc

Types Of Networking:

There are five types of networking listed below in which three types are commonly use

1) LAN (Local area Network)

Those network in which one or more than one PC are connected through cable in small geographic area, one room or building
e.g.: Private N/w (Private Organization)-> Intranet

2) WAN (Wide Area Network)

Network in which one or more than PC are connected through Satellites System or cable.we can communicate all over the world.
e.g: Public N/w->Internet

3) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

This network is similar to WAN and also a kind of WAN
e.g: With in a City

4) CAN (Campus Area Network)

e.g: Different Organization Same Network

5) PAN (Personal Area Network)

e.g: For Small Distance Like Bluetooth etc.


The method of making Network known as Topology. There are six basic type of topology.

1) BUS Topology:

In which PCs are connected to the coaxial cable in series both ends are connected with Terminator is use to terminate the signal the technology use in bus is CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection)

bus topology



2) STAR Topology:

All PCs are connected to the central device (Switch/Hub). If PC is not working it does not have any effect on the network


star toplogy

3) MESH Topology:

In this topology PC to PC connected directly. As a result of which a network root is laid out physically this topology is Less usage in N/W. now you can see all the PCs are connected with each other.

mesh toplogy



4) RING Topology:

PCs are connected with coaxial cable there is no end point signal is passed along the ring in one direction from PC to PC until it reaches its destination.

ring topology




DATA Flow:

Communication b/w two devices can be simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex.

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